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Akkila, W. M., Chambers, R. L., Ornasky, O. I. & McDermott, J. C. (1997) Molecular cloning of up-regulated cytoskeletal genes from regenerating skeletal muscle: potential role of myocyte enhancer factor 2 proteins in the activation of muscle-regeneration-associated genes. Biochem. J. 325, 87-93.
A subtractive hybridization and cloning strategy was used to identify genes that are up-regulated in regenerating compared with normal skeletal muscle. The gastrocnemius muscle of CD1 mice was injected with a myotoxic agent (BaCl2). A cDNA library was constructed from the regenerating muscle, and was screened with subtracted probes enriched in genes up-regulated during regeneration. Cofilin and vimentin cDNA clones were isolated. Both cofilin and vimentin were demonstrated to be overexpressed in regenerating compared with non-regenerating muscle (17-fold and 19-fold induction respectively). Cofilin and vimentin mRNAs also exhibited an increased expression in C2C12 myoblasts and a decreased expression in differentiated myotubes. Analysis of the regeneration-induced vimentin enhancer/promoter region revealed a consensus binding site for the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and in vivo reporter assays revealed that MEF2 DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activation are increased in regenerating skeletal muscle, indicating that they may play a role in the activation of muscle genes during regeneration. These data suggest that both cofilin (an actin-regulatory protein) and vimentin (an intermediate filament) may be key components of the cytoskeletal reorganization that mediates muscle cell development and adult skeletal-muscle repair.
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