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Name Species/ tissues Mol.Wt pH sensitive F-actin binding Regulation by Phosphorylation Regulation by Phosphoinositides 3D- Structure determined? Accession numbers (blue AA, gene; Green Structure)
Actophorin Acanthamoeba castellanii 15,543



Maciver et al, 1998


Blanchoin & Pollard, 1998


Quirk et al, 1993; Van Troy et al, 2000


Leonard et al, 1997; Blanchoin et al, 2000

M93361 1AHQ

Quirk et al, 1993

Actophorin Toxoplasma gondii 13,400


? ? ? No U62146

Allen et al, 1997

ADF Human/Pig non-muscle 165aa Yes

Hawkins et al, 1993




Yonezawa et al, 1991


Hatanaka et al, 1996

NP 006861

Hawkins et al, 1993

ADF ZmADF3 Zea mays 139aa Yes

Gungabissoon et al, 1998


Smertenko et al, 1998


Gungabissoon et al, 1998

No X97726

Lopez et al, 1996

ADF AtADF1, Arabidopsis thaliana 139aa Yes

Carlier et al, 1997

- - Yes
Bowman et al, 2000
U48938 1F7S
ADF Petunia hybrida PhADF1 139aa Yes

Mun et al, 2000

? ? No AF183903

Mun et al, 2000

Cofilin Chicken muscle Yes Yes Yes No J02912  
Abe et al, 1990
Cofilin 1 Dictyostelium discoideum 137aa - - - No D37980
Aizawa et al, 1995
Cofilin Human non-muscle 166aa Yes

Yonezawa et al, 1985


Moriyama etal, 1996


Yonezawa et al, 1991

No P23528
Ogawa et al, 1990; Gillett et al, 1996
Cofilin Human muscle 166aa No XP_052827
Gillett et al, 1996; Akkila et al, 1997
Cofilin Saccharomyces cerevisae 143aa Yes

Iida et al,1993

No Yes

Ojala et al, 2001


Federov et al, 1997

D13230  1COF
Iida et al,1993; Moon et al, 1993.
Xenopus laevis 168aa Yes

Abe et al, 1995


Abe et al, 1995

? No P45695, Xac1 U26270
Xac2 U26269

Abe et al, 1996

Depactin Starfish 150aa No

Mabuchi, 1981

? ? No A29916
Takagi et al, 1988
Twinstar Drosophila melanogaster 148aa ? ? ? No A57569
Gunsalus et al, 1995; Edward et al, 
Unc-60 Caenerhabditis elegans 152aa
? ? ? No ADF1 Q07750 ADF2 Q07749
Ono et al, 1999
 Table 1 Properties of ADF/Cofilins

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Abe, H., T. Obinata, et al. (1996). "Xenopus laevis actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin: a phosphorylation-regulated protein essential for development." J Cell Biol 132, 871-885.

Abe, H., T. A. Verrastro, et al. (1995). "Xenopus development is dependent upon regulation of ADF/cofilin by phosphorylation." Molecular Biology Of The Cell 6, 127-127.

Allen, M. L., Dobrowolski, J. M., Muller, H., Sibley, L. D. & Mansour, T. E. (1997) Cloning and characterization of actin depolymerizing factor from Toxoplasma gondii, Mol.Biochem.Parasitol. 88, 43-52.

Agnew, B. J., Minamide, L. S. & Bamburg, J. R. (1995) Reactivation of phosphorylated actin depolymerizing factor and identification of the regulatory site., J. Biol. Chem. 270, 17582-17587.

Aizawa, H., Y. Fukui, et al. (1997). "Live dynamics of Dictyostelium cofilin suggests a role in remodeling actin latticework into bundles." J.Cell Sci. 110, 2333-2344.

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Aizawa, H., K. Sutoh, et al. (1995). "Identification, characterization, and intracellular distribution of cofilin in Dictyostelium discoideum." J. Biol. Chem. 270(18), 10923-10932.

Aizawa, H., K. Sutoh, et al. (1996). "Overexpression of cofilin stimulates bundling of actin filaments, membrane ruffling and cell movement in Dictyostelium." J. Cell Biol. 132, 335-344.

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Bernstein, B.W., Painter, W.B., Chen, H., Minamide, L.S., Abe, H. & Bamburg, J.R. (2000). "Intracellular pH modulation of ADF/cofilin proteins." Cell Mot.Cytoskeleton 47, 319-336.

Blanchion, L., T. D. Pollard, et al. (2000). "Interactions of ADF/cofilin, Arp2/3 complex, capping protein and profilin in remodeling of branched actin filament networks." Curr.Biol. 10, 1273-1282.

Blanchoin, L. and T. D. Pollard (1998). "Interaction of actin monomers with Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) and profilin." J.Biol.Chem. 273, 25106-25111.

Blanchoin, L. and T. D. Pollard (1999). "Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) with actin filaments." J.Biol.Chem. 274(22), 15538-15546.

Blanchoin, L., R. C. Robinson, et al. (2000). "Phosphorylation of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) blocks interaction with actin without a change in atomic structure." J.Mol.Biol. 295, 203-211.

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Carlier, M., J. Santolini, et al. (1996). "Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin) uses ATP hydrolysis to enhance actin dynamics." Mol. Biol. of the Cell 7, 546a.

Carlier, M.-F. (1998). "Control of actin dynamics." Curr.Biol. 10, 45-51.

Carlier, M. F., V. Laurent, et al. (1997). "Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/Cofilin) enhances the rate of filament turnover: Implication in actin-based motility." J.Cell Biol. 136, 1307-1323.

Carlier, M.-F. and D. Pantaloni (1997). "Control of actin dynamics in cell motility." J.Mol.Biol. 269, 459-467.

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Chen, H., B. W. Bernstein, et al. (2000). "Regulating actin-filament dynamics in vitro." TIBS 25, 19-23.

Chung, Y. Y., N. S. Magnuson, et al. (1995). "Subcellular-localization of actin depolymerizing factor in mature and germinating pollen." Molecules And Cells 5, 224-229.

Cooper, J. A. and D. A. Schafer (2000). "Control of actin assembly and disassembly at filament ends." Curr.Op.Cell Biol. 12, 97-103.

Daoud, E. W., S. M. Hayden, et al. (1988). "Inhibition of deoxyribonuclease-I activity by actin covalently cross-linked to chick brain actin depolymerizing factor through exposed sulfhydryls." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 155, 890-894.

Danyluk, J., Carpentier, E. & Sarhan, F. (1996) Identification and characterization of a low-temperature regulated gene encoding an actin-binding protein from wheat, FEBS Letters. 389, 324-327.

David, V., E. Gouin, et al. (1998). "Identification of cofilin, coronin, Rac and capZ in actin tails using a Listeria affinity approach." J.Cell Sci. 111, 2877-2884.

Davidson, M. M. L. and R. J. Haslam (1994). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+." Biochem. J. 301:, 41-47.

Devineni, N., L. S. Minamide, et al. (1999). "A quantitative analysis of G-actin binding proteins and the G-actin pool in developing chick brain." Brain Research 823, 129-140.

Didry, D., M.-F. Carlier, et al. (1998). "Synergy between actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin and profilin in increasing actin filament turnover." J.Biol.Chem. 273, 25602-25611.

Djafarzadeh, S. and V. Niggli (1997). "Signaling pathways involved in dephosphorylation and localization of the actin-binding protein cofilin in stimulated human neutrophils." Exp.Cell Res. 236, 427-435.

Du, J. and C. Frieden (1998). "Kinetic studies on the effect of yeast cofilin on yeast actin polymerization." Biochemistry 37, 13276-13284.

Edwards, D. C. and G. N. Gill (1999). "Structural features of LIM kinase that control effects on the actin cytoskeleton." J.Biol.Chem. 274, 11352-11361.

Edwards, D. C., L. C. Sanders, et al. (1999). "Activation of LIM-kinase by Pak1 couples Rac/Cdc42 GTPase siganlling to actin cytoskletal dynamics." Nature Cell Biol. 1,  253-259.

Federov, A., P. Lappalainen, et al. (1997). "Structure Determination of yeast cofilin." Nature (structural biology) 4(5), 366-369.

Fritsche, J., B. F.-X. Reber, et al. (1999). "Differential cytoskeletal changes during growth cone collapse in response to hSema III and thrombin." Mol.Cell.Neuroscience 14, 398-418.

Fujita, H., P. G. Allen, et al. (1997). "Characterization of gelsolin truncates that inhibit actin polymerization by severing activity of gelsolin and cofilin." Eur.J.Biochem. 248: 834-839.

Fukui, Y., E. de Hostos, et al. (1999). "Architectural dynamics of F-actin in eupodia suggests their role in invasive locomotion in Dictyostelium." Exp.Cell Res. 249: 33-45.

Giansanti, M. G., S. Bonaccorsi, et al. (1999). "The role of anillin in meiotic cytokinesis of Drosophila males." J.Cell Sci. 112, 2323-2334.

Gillett, G. T., M. F. Fox, et al. (1996). "Mapping of human nonmuscle type cofilin (cfl1) to chromosome-11q13 and muscle-type cofilin (cfl2) to chromosome-14." Annals Of Human Genetics 60, 201-211.

Goode, B. L., D. G. Drubin, et al. (1998). "Regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast by twinfilin, a ubiquitous actin monomer sequestering protein." J.Cell Biol. 142(3), 723-733.

Gungabissoon, R. A., C.-J. Jiang, et al. (1998). "Interaction of maize actin-depolymerising factor with actin and phosphoinositides and its inhibition of plant phospholipase C." Plant J. 16(6), 689-696.

Gunsalus, K. and M. Goldberg (1995). "Drosophila cofilin is required during embryogenesis and oogenesis." Mol. Biol.Cell 6, 135-135.

Gunsalus, K. C., S. Bonaccorsi, et al. (1995). "Mutations in twinstar, a Drosophila gene encoding a cofilin/ADF homologue, result in defects in centrosome migration and cytokinesis." J. Cell Biol. 131(5), 1243-1259.

Hawkins, M., B. Pope, et al. (1993). "Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments." Biochemistry 32, 9985-9993.

Hayakawa, K., N. Minami, et al. (1993). "Increased expression of cofilin in dystrophic chicken and mouse skeletal muscles." J Biochem Tokyo 114(4): 582-7.

Heyworth, P. G., J. Ding, et al. (1996). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated neutrophils." Faseb Journal 10, 703-703.

Ichetovkin, I., J. Han, et al. (2000). "Actin filaments are severed by native and recombinant Dictyostellium cofilin but to different extents." Cell Mot.Cytoskeleton 45, 293-306.

Iida, K., S. Matsumoto, et al. (1992). "The KKRKK sequence is involved in heat shock-induced nuclear translocation of the 18-kDa actin binding protein, cofilin." Cell Structure and Function 17, 39-46.

Iida, K., K. Moriyama, et al. (1993). "Isolation of a yeast essential gene, COF1, that encodes a homologue of mammalian cofilin, a low-Mr actin-binding and depolymerizing protein." Gene 124, 115-120.

Iida, K. and I. Yahara (1999). "Cooperation of two actin-binding proteins, cofilin and Aip1, in Saccharmyces cerevisiae." Genes to Cells 4, 21-32.

Jiang, C.-J., W. A.G., et al. (1997). "The maize actin-depolymerizing factor, ZmADF3, redistributes to the growing tip of elongating root hairs and can be induced to translocate into the nucleus with actin." Plant J. 12(5), 1035-1043.

Jiang, C.-J., A. G. Weeds, et al. (1997). "F-actin and G-actin binding are uncoupled by mutation of conserved tyrosine residues in maize actin depolymerizing factor (ZmADF)." PNAS.USA 94.

Joyce, S., P. Tabaczewski, et al. (1994). "A nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex class Ib molecule binds a large array of diverse self-peptides." J.Exp.Med. 179: 579-588.

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Koffer, A., Edgar, A. J. & Bamburg, J. R. (1988) Identification of two species of actin depolymerizing factor in cultures of BHK cells, Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 9, 320-328.

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Lappalainen, P., E. V. Fedorov, et al. (1997). "Essential functions and actin-binding surfaces of yeast cofilin revealed by systematic mutagenesis." EMBO J. 16(18), 5520-5530.

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Maciver, S. K. and C. R. Harrington (1995). "Two actin-binding proteins, actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin, are associated with Hirano bodies." Neuroreport 6, 1985-1988.

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McGough, A. (1998). "F-actin binding proteins." Curr.Op.Struct.Biol. 8, 166-176.

McGough, A. and W. Chiu (1999). "ADF/cofilin weakens lateral contacts in the actin filament." J.Mol.Biol. 291, 513-519.

McGough, A., B. Pope, et al. (1997). "Cofilin changes the twist of F-actin: Implications for actin filament dynamics and cellular function." J.Cell Biol. 138(4), 771-781.

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