EDInfo Biomedical Sciences Maciver Lab. Home ABP  A-Z Encyclopaedia Amoebae Protist Links Cytoskeleton Links Site Index
Name Species/ tissues Mol.Wt pH sensitive F-actin binding Regulation by Phosphorylation Regulation by Phosphoinositides 3D- Structure determined? Accession numbers (blue AA, gene; Green Structure)
Actophorin Acanthamoeba castellanii 15,543

138aa

No

Maciver et al, 1998

Yes

Blanchoin & Pollard, 1998

Yes

Quirk et al, 1993; Van Troy et al, 2000

Yes

Leonard et al, 1997; Blanchoin et al, 2000

M93361 1AHQ

Quirk et al, 1993

Actophorin Toxoplasma gondii 13,400

118aa

? ? ? No U62146

Allen et al, 1997

ADF Human/Pig non-muscle 165aa Yes

Hawkins et al, 1993

Yes

 

Yes

Yonezawa et al, 1991

Yes

Hatanaka et al, 1996

NP 006861

Hawkins et al, 1993

ADF ZmADF3 Zea mays 139aa Yes

Gungabissoon et al, 1998

Yes 

Smertenko et al, 1998

Yes

Gungabissoon et al, 1998

No X97726

Lopez et al, 1996

ADF AtADF1, Arabidopsis thaliana 139aa Yes

Carlier et al, 1997

- - Yes
Bowman et al, 2000
U48938 1F7S
ADF Petunia hybrida PhADF1 139aa Yes

Mun et al, 2000

? ? No AF183903

Mun et al, 2000

Cofilin Chicken muscle Yes Yes Yes No J02912  
Abe et al, 1990
Cofilin 1 Dictyostelium discoideum 137aa - - - No D37980
Aizawa et al, 1995
Cofilin Human non-muscle 166aa Yes

Yonezawa et al, 1985

Yes

Moriyama etal, 1996

Yes

Yonezawa et al, 1991

No P23528
Ogawa et al, 1990; Gillett et al, 1996
Cofilin Human muscle 166aa No XP_052827
Gillett et al, 1996; Akkila et al, 1997
Cofilin Saccharomyces cerevisae 143aa Yes

Iida et al,1993

No Yes

Ojala et al, 2001

Yes

Federov et al, 1997

D13230  1COF
Iida et al,1993; Moon et al, 1993.
XAC1
XAC2
Xenopus laevis 168aa Yes

Abe et al, 1995

Yes

Abe et al, 1995

? No P45695, Xac1 U26270
Xac2 U26269

Abe et al, 1996

Depactin Starfish 150aa No

Mabuchi, 1981

? ? No A29916
Takagi et al, 1988
Twinstar Drosophila melanogaster 148aa ? ? ? No A57569
Gunsalus et al, 1995; Edward et al, 
Unc-60 Caenerhabditis elegans 152aa
165aa
? ? ? No ADF1 Q07750 ADF2 Q07749
Ono et al, 1999
 Table 1 Properties of ADF/Cofilins
References:-

Abe, H., T. Endo, et al. (1990). Sequence of cDNAs Encoding Actin Depolymerizing Factor and Cofilin of Embryonic Chicken Skeletal Muscle: Two Functionally Distinct Actin-Regulatory Proteins Exhibit High Structural Homology. Biochemistry 29, 7420-7425.

Abe, H., T. Obinata, et al. (1996). "Xenopus laevis actin-depolymerizing factor/cofilin: a phosphorylation-regulated protein essential for development." J Cell Biol 132, 871-885.

Abe, H., T. A. Verrastro, et al. (1995). "Xenopus development is dependent upon regulation of ADF/cofilin by phosphorylation." Molecular Biology Of The Cell 6, 127-127.

Allen, M. L., Dobrowolski, J. M., Muller, H., Sibley, L. D. & Mansour, T. E. (1997) Cloning and characterization of actin depolymerizing factor from Toxoplasma gondii, Mol.Biochem.Parasitol. 88, 43-52.

Agnew, B. J., Minamide, L. S. & Bamburg, J. R. (1995) Reactivation of phosphorylated actin depolymerizing factor and identification of the regulatory site., J. Biol. Chem. 270, 17582-17587.

Aizawa, H., Y. Fukui, et al. (1997). "Live dynamics of Dictyostelium cofilin suggests a role in remodeling actin latticework into bundles." J.Cell Sci. 110, 2333-2344.

Aizawa, H., M. Katadae, et al. (1999). "Hyperosmotic stress-induced reorganization of actin bundles in Dictyostelium cells over-expressing cofilin." Genes to Cells 4, 311-324.

Aizawa, H., K. Sutoh, et al. (1995). "Identification, characterization, and intracellular distribution of cofilin in Dictyostelium discoideum." J. Biol. Chem. 270(18), 10923-10932.

Aizawa, H., K. Sutoh, et al. (1996). "Overexpression of cofilin stimulates bundling of actin filaments, membrane ruffling and cell movement in Dictyostelium." J. Cell Biol. 132, 335-344.

Akkila, W. M., R. L. Chambers, et al. (1997). "Molecular cloning of up-regulated cytoskeletal genes from regenerating skeletal muscle: potential role of myocyte enhancer factor 2 proteins in the activation of muscle-regeneration-associated genes." Biochem. J. 325, 87-93.

Arber, S., F. A. Barbayannis, et al. (1998). "Regulation of actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase." Nature 393, 805-809.

Bamburg, J. R. and B. W. Bernstein (1991). Actin and actin-binding protein in neurons. The Neuronal Cytoskeleton. R. D. Burgoyne. New York, Wiley-Liss, Inc: 121-160.

Bamburg, J. R., A. McGough, et al. (1999). "Putting a new twist on actin: ADF/cofilins modulate actin dynamics." Trends Cell Biol. 9,  364-370.

Belmont, L. D., A. Orlova, et al. (1999). "A change in actin conformation associated with filament instability after Pi release." PNAS.USA 96,  29-34.

Bernstein, B. W. and J. R. Bamburg (1982). "Tropomyosin binding to F-actin protects the F-actin from disassembly by brain actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)." Cell Motility 2, 1-8.

Bernstein, B.W., Painter, W.B., Chen, H., Minamide, L.S., Abe, H. & Bamburg, J.R. (2000). "Intracellular pH modulation of ADF/cofilin proteins." Cell Mot.Cytoskeleton 47, 319-336.

Blanchion, L., T. D. Pollard, et al. (2000). "Interactions of ADF/cofilin, Arp2/3 complex, capping protein and profilin in remodeling of branched actin filament networks." Curr.Biol. 10, 1273-1282.

Blanchoin, L. and T. D. Pollard (1998). "Interaction of actin monomers with Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) and profilin." J.Biol.Chem. 273, 25106-25111.

Blanchoin, L. and T. D. Pollard (1999). "Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) with actin filaments." J.Biol.Chem. 274(22), 15538-15546.

Blanchoin, L., R. C. Robinson, et al. (2000). "Phosphorylation of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/cofilin) blocks interaction with actin without a change in atomic structure." J.Mol.Biol. 295, 203-211.

Bonet, C., D. Ternent, et al. (2000). "Rapid formation and high diffusibility of actin-cofilin cofilaments at low pH." Eur.J.Biochem. 267, 1-8.

Carlier, M., J. Santolini, et al. (1996). "Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin) uses ATP hydrolysis to enhance actin dynamics." Mol. Biol. of the Cell 7, 546a.

Carlier, M.-F. (1998). "Control of actin dynamics." Curr.Biol. 10, 45-51.

Carlier, M. F., V. Laurent, et al. (1997). "Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/Cofilin) enhances the rate of filament turnover: Implication in actin-based motility." J.Cell Biol. 136, 1307-1323.

Carlier, M.-F. and D. Pantaloni (1997). "Control of actin dynamics in cell motility." J.Mol.Biol. 269, 459-467.

Carlier, M.-F., F. Ressad, et al. (1999). "Control of actin dynamics in cell motility. Role of ADF/cofilin." J.Biol.Chem. 274(48), 33827-33830.

Chan, A. Y., M. Bailly, et al. (2000). "Role of cofilin in epidermal growth factor-stimulated actin polymerization and lamellipod protrusion." J.Cell Biol. 148(3), 531-542.

Chen, H., B. W. Bernstein, et al. (2000). "Regulating actin-filament dynamics in vitro." TIBS 25, 19-23.

Chung, Y. Y., N. S. Magnuson, et al. (1995). "Subcellular-localization of actin depolymerizing factor in mature and germinating pollen." Molecules And Cells 5, 224-229.

Cooper, J. A. and D. A. Schafer (2000). "Control of actin assembly and disassembly at filament ends." Curr.Op.Cell Biol. 12, 97-103.

Daoud, E. W., S. M. Hayden, et al. (1988). "Inhibition of deoxyribonuclease-I activity by actin covalently cross-linked to chick brain actin depolymerizing factor through exposed sulfhydryls." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 155, 890-894.

Danyluk, J., Carpentier, E. & Sarhan, F. (1996) Identification and characterization of a low-temperature regulated gene encoding an actin-binding protein from wheat, FEBS Letters. 389, 324-327.

David, V., E. Gouin, et al. (1998). "Identification of cofilin, coronin, Rac and capZ in actin tails using a Listeria affinity approach." J.Cell Sci. 111, 2877-2884.

Davidson, M. M. L. and R. J. Haslam (1994). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated platelets: roles for a GTP-binding protein and Ca2+." Biochem. J. 301:, 41-47.

Devineni, N., L. S. Minamide, et al. (1999). "A quantitative analysis of G-actin binding proteins and the G-actin pool in developing chick brain." Brain Research 823, 129-140.

Didry, D., M.-F. Carlier, et al. (1998). "Synergy between actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin and profilin in increasing actin filament turnover." J.Biol.Chem. 273, 25602-25611.

Djafarzadeh, S. and V. Niggli (1997). "Signaling pathways involved in dephosphorylation and localization of the actin-binding protein cofilin in stimulated human neutrophils." Exp.Cell Res. 236, 427-435.

Du, J. and C. Frieden (1998). "Kinetic studies on the effect of yeast cofilin on yeast actin polymerization." Biochemistry 37, 13276-13284.

Edwards, D. C. and G. N. Gill (1999). "Structural features of LIM kinase that control effects on the actin cytoskeleton." J.Biol.Chem. 274, 11352-11361.

Edwards, D. C., L. C. Sanders, et al. (1999). "Activation of LIM-kinase by Pak1 couples Rac/Cdc42 GTPase siganlling to actin cytoskletal dynamics." Nature Cell Biol. 1,  253-259.

Federov, A., P. Lappalainen, et al. (1997). "Structure Determination of yeast cofilin." Nature (structural biology) 4(5), 366-369.

Fritsche, J., B. F.-X. Reber, et al. (1999). "Differential cytoskeletal changes during growth cone collapse in response to hSema III and thrombin." Mol.Cell.Neuroscience 14, 398-418.

Fujita, H., P. G. Allen, et al. (1997). "Characterization of gelsolin truncates that inhibit actin polymerization by severing activity of gelsolin and cofilin." Eur.J.Biochem. 248: 834-839.

Fukui, Y., E. de Hostos, et al. (1999). "Architectural dynamics of F-actin in eupodia suggests their role in invasive locomotion in Dictyostelium." Exp.Cell Res. 249: 33-45.

Giansanti, M. G., S. Bonaccorsi, et al. (1999). "The role of anillin in meiotic cytokinesis of Drosophila males." J.Cell Sci. 112, 2323-2334.

Gillett, G. T., M. F. Fox, et al. (1996). "Mapping of human nonmuscle type cofilin (cfl1) to chromosome-11q13 and muscle-type cofilin (cfl2) to chromosome-14." Annals Of Human Genetics 60, 201-211.

Goode, B. L., D. G. Drubin, et al. (1998). "Regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast by twinfilin, a ubiquitous actin monomer sequestering protein." J.Cell Biol. 142(3), 723-733.

Gungabissoon, R. A., C.-J. Jiang, et al. (1998). "Interaction of maize actin-depolymerising factor with actin and phosphoinositides and its inhibition of plant phospholipase C." Plant J. 16(6), 689-696.

Gunsalus, K. and M. Goldberg (1995). "Drosophila cofilin is required during embryogenesis and oogenesis." Mol. Biol.Cell 6, 135-135.

Gunsalus, K. C., S. Bonaccorsi, et al. (1995). "Mutations in twinstar, a Drosophila gene encoding a cofilin/ADF homologue, result in defects in centrosome migration and cytokinesis." J. Cell Biol. 131(5), 1243-1259.

Hawkins, M., B. Pope, et al. (1993). "Human actin depolymerizing factor mediates a pH-sensitive destruction of actin filaments." Biochemistry 32, 9985-9993.

Hayakawa, K., N. Minami, et al. (1993). "Increased expression of cofilin in dystrophic chicken and mouse skeletal muscles." J Biochem Tokyo 114(4): 582-7.

Heyworth, P. G., J. Ding, et al. (1996). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in stimulated neutrophils." Faseb Journal 10, 703-703.

Ichetovkin, I., J. Han, et al. (2000). "Actin filaments are severed by native and recombinant Dictyostellium cofilin but to different extents." Cell Mot.Cytoskeleton 45, 293-306.

Iida, K., S. Matsumoto, et al. (1992). "The KKRKK sequence is involved in heat shock-induced nuclear translocation of the 18-kDa actin binding protein, cofilin." Cell Structure and Function 17, 39-46.

Iida, K., K. Moriyama, et al. (1993). "Isolation of a yeast essential gene, COF1, that encodes a homologue of mammalian cofilin, a low-Mr actin-binding and depolymerizing protein." Gene 124, 115-120.

Iida, K. and I. Yahara (1999). "Cooperation of two actin-binding proteins, cofilin and Aip1, in Saccharmyces cerevisiae." Genes to Cells 4, 21-32.

Jiang, C.-J., W. A.G., et al. (1997). "The maize actin-depolymerizing factor, ZmADF3, redistributes to the growing tip of elongating root hairs and can be induced to translocate into the nucleus with actin." Plant J. 12(5), 1035-1043.

Jiang, C.-J., A. G. Weeds, et al. (1997). "F-actin and G-actin binding are uncoupled by mutation of conserved tyrosine residues in maize actin depolymerizing factor (ZmADF)." PNAS.USA 94.

Joyce, S., P. Tabaczewski, et al. (1994). "A nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex class Ib molecule binds a large array of diverse self-peptides." J.Exp.Med. 179: 579-588.

Kanamori, T., T. Hayakawa, et al. (1995). "Identification of two 17-kDa rat parotid gland phosphoproteins, subjects for dephosphorylation upon b-adrenergic stimulation, as destrin- and cofilin-like proteins." J. Biol. Chem. 270(14), 8061-8067.

Koffer, A., Edgar, A. J. & Bamburg, J. R. (1988) Identification of two species of actin depolymerizing factor in cultures of BHK cells, Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 9, 320-328.

Kondo, T., T. Shirasawa, et al. (1996). "Embryonic genes expressed in Alzheimer's-disease brains." Neuroscience Letters 209, 157-160.

Kuhn, T. B., P. J. Meberg, et al. (2000). "Regulating actin dynamics in neuronal growth cones by ADF/cofilin and Rho family GTPases." J. Neurobiology 44, 126-144.

Lappalainen, P. and D. G. Drubin (1997). "Cofilin promotes rapid actin filament turnover in vitro." Nature 388, 78-82.

Lappalainen, P., E. V. Fedorov, et al. (1997). "Essential functions and actin-binding surfaces of yeast cofilin revealed by systematic mutagenesis." EMBO J. 16(18), 5520-5530.

Lappalainen, P., M. M. Kessels, et al. (1998). "The ADF homolog (ADF-H) domain: A highly exploited actin-binding module."  Mol.Biol.Cell 9, 1951-1959.

Leonard, S., Gittis, A., Petrulla, E., Pollard, T. & Lattman, E. (1997) Crystal structure of the actin-binding protein actophorin from Acanthamoeba, Nature (structural Biology). 4, 369-373.

Lian, J. P., P. G. Marks, et al. (2000). "A protein kinase from neutrophils that specifically recognizes Ser-3 in cofilin." J.Biol.Chem. 275(4), 2869-2876.

Loisel, T. P., R. Boujemaa, et al. (1999). "Reconstitution of actin-based motilitiy of Listeria and Shigella using pure proteins." Nature 401, 613-616.

Lopez, I., R. G. Anthony, et al. (1996). "Pollen specific expression of maize genes encoding actin depolymerizing factor-like proteins." PNAS USA 93, 7415-7420.

Mabuchi, I. (1981). "Purification from starfish eggs of a protein that depolymerizes actin." J.Biochem. 89, 1341-1344.

Maciver, S. K. (1998). "How ADF/cofilin depolymerizes actin filaments." Curr.Biol. 10, 140-144.

Maciver, S. K. and C. R. Harrington (1995). "Two actin-binding proteins, actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin, are associated with Hirano bodies." Neuroreport 6, 1985-1988.

Maciver, S. K., B. J. Pope, et al. (1998). "The effect of two ADF/cofilins on actin filament turnover: pH sensitivity of F-actin by human ADF, but not of Acanthamoeba actophorin." Biochemistry 256, 388-397.

Maekawa, S., E. Nishida, et al. (1984). "Isolation of low molecular weight actin-binding proteins from porcine brain." J.Biochem. 95, 377-385.

Matsuzaki, F., S. Matsumoto, et al. (1988). "Cloning and Characterization of Porcine Brain Cofilin cDNA." J. Biol. Chem. 263(23), 11564-11568.

McGough, A. (1998). "F-actin binding proteins." Curr.Op.Struct.Biol. 8, 166-176.

McGough, A. and W. Chiu (1999). "ADF/cofilin weakens lateral contacts in the actin filament." J.Mol.Biol. 291, 513-519.

McGough, A., B. Pope, et al. (1997). "Cofilin changes the twist of F-actin: Implications for actin filament dynamics and cellular function." J.Cell Biol. 138(4), 771-781.

McGrath, J. L., E. A. Osborn, et al. (2000). "Regulation of the actin cycle in vivo by actin filament severing." PNAS USA 97, 6532-6537.

Meberg, P. J., Ono, S., Minamide, L.S., Takahashi, M., & Bamburg, J.R. (1998). "Actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin phosphorylation dynamics: Response to signals that regulate neurite extension." Cell Mot. Cytoskeleton 39, 172-190.

Meberg, P.J. & Bamburg, J.R. (2000). "Increase in neurite outgrowth mediated by overexpression of actin depolymerizing factor." J.Neuroscience 20(7), 2459-2469.

Mills, R. G., L. S. Minamide, et al. (1996). "Slow axonal-transport of soluble actin with actin depolymerizing factor, cofilin, and profilin suggests actin moves in an unassembled form." Journal Of Neurochemistry 67, 1225-1234.

Minamide, L. S., W. P. Painter, et al. (1997). "Differential regulation of actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin in response to alterations in the actin monomer pool." J.Biol.Chem. 272(13), 8303-8309.

Minamide, L. S., A. M. Streigl, et al. (2000). "Neurodegenerative stimuli induced persistent ADF/cofilin-actin rods that disrupt distal neurite function." Nature Cell Biol. 2: 628-636.

Moon, A. and D. Drubin (1995). "The ADF/cofilin proteins: stimulus-responsive modulators of actin dynamics." Mol. Biol. Cell 6, 1423-1431.

Moon, A. L., P. A. Janmey, et al. (1992). "Yeast cofilin - an actin filament severing protein essential for cell viability." Mol. Biol. Cell 3, A 153-A 153.

Moon, A. L., P. A. Janmey, et al. (1993). "Cofilin Is an Essential Component of the Yeast Cortical Cytoskeleton." J. Cell Biol. 120(2), 421-435.

Moriyama, K., K. Iida, et al. (1996). "Phosphorylation of ser-3 of cofilin regulates its essential function on actin." Genes To Cells 1, 73-86.

Moriyama, K., S. Matsumoto, et al. (1990). "Nucleotide sequence of mouse cofilin cDNA." Nucleic Acids Research 18(10), 3053.

Moriyama, K., E. Nishida, et al. (1990). "Destrin, a mammalian actin-depolymerizing protein, Is closely related to cofilin." J. Biol. Chem. 265(10), 5768-5773.

Moriyama, K. and I. Yahara (1999). "Two activities of cofilin, severing and accelerating directional depolymerization of actin filaments, are affected differentially by mutations around the actin-binding helix." EMBO J. 18(23), 6752-6761.

Moriyama, K., N. Yonezawa, et al. (1992). "Mutational analysis of an actin-binding site of cofilin and characterization of chimeric proteins between cofilin and destrin." J. Biol.Chem. 267, 7240-7244.

Mulholland, J., D. Preuss, et al. (1994). "Ultrastructure of the yeast actin cytoskeleton and its association with the plasma membrane." J Cell Biol 125(2), 381-91.

Mun, J.-H., H.-J. Yu, et al. (2000). "Two closely related cDNA encoding actin-depolymerizing factors of Petunia are mainly expressed in vegetative tissues." Gene 257, 167-176.

Muneyuki, E., E. Nishida, et al. (1985). "Purification of cofilin, a 21,000 molecular weight actin-binding protein, from porcine kidney and identification of the cofilin-binding site in the actin sequence." J.Biochem. 97, 563-568.

Nagaishi, K., R. Adachi, et al. (1999). "Participation of cofilin in opsonized zymosan-triggered activation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells through rapid dephosphorylation and translocation to plasma membranes." J.Biochem. 125(5), 891-898.

Nagaishi, K., R. Adachi, et al. (1999). "Merbimycin A inhibits both dephosphorylation and translocation of cofilin induced by opsonized zymosan in macrophagelike U937 cells." J.Cell.Physiol. 180, 345-354.

Nagaoka, R., H. Abe, et al. (1995). "Concentration of cofilin, a small actin-binding protein, at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis." Cell Motility And The Cytoskeleton 30, 1-7.

Nagaoka, R., H. Abe, et al. (1996). "Site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphorylation site of cofilin: its role in cofilin-actin interaction and cytoplasmic localization." Cell mot. and Cytoskel. 35, 200-209.

Nagaoka, R., K. Kusano, et al. (1995). "Effects of cofilin on actin filamentous structures in cultured muscle cells." J. Cell Sci. 108, 581-593.

Nagaoka, R., N. Minami, et al. (1996). "Quantitative-analysis of low-molecular-weight G-actin-binding proteins, cofilin, ADF and profilin, expressed in developing and degenerating chicken skeletal-muscles." J.Muscle Res. and Cell Mot.17, 463-473.

Nebl, G., S. Meuer, et al. (1996). "Dephosphorylatioin of Serine 3 regulates nuclear translocation of cofilin." J. Biol. Chem. 271, 26276-26280.

Nishida, E. (1985). "Opposite effects of cofilin and profilin from porcine brain on rate of exchange of actin-bound adenosine 5'-triphosphate." Biochemistry 24, 1160-1164

Nishida, E., K. Iida, et al. (1987). "Cofilin is a component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods induced in cultured cells." PNAS USA 84, 5262-5266.

Nishida, E., S. Maekawa, et al. (1984). "Action of a 19K protein from porcine brain on actin polymerization: a new functional class of actin-binding proteins." J. Biochem. 95, 387-398.

Nishida, E., S. Maekawa, et al. (1984). "Cofilin, a Protein in Porcine Brain That Binds to Actin Filaments and Inhibits their Interactions with Myosin and Tropomyosin." Biochemistry 23, 5307-5313.

Nishida, E., E. Muneyuki, et al. (1985). "An Actin-Depolymerizing Protein (Destrin) from Porcine Kidney. Its Action on F-Actin Containing or Lacking Tropomyosin." Biochemistry 24, 6624-6630.

Obinata, T., H. Abe, et al. (1994). "The molecular-structure of muscle-type cofilin and its tissue expression." J.Cell.Biochem. 510-510.

Ogawa, K., M. Tashima, et al. (1990). "Coding sequence of human placenta cofilin cDNA." Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 7169.

Ohashi, K., K. Nagata, et al. (2000). "Rho-associated kinase ROCK activates LIM-kinase 1 by phosphorylation at threonine 508 within the activation loop." J.Biol.Chem. 275(5), 3577-3582.

Ohta, Y., S. Endo, et al. (1984). "An 18K protein from ascites hepatoma cell depolymerizes actin filaments rapidly." J.Biochem. 96, 1547-1558.

Ohta, Y., E. Nishida, et al. (1989). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin accompanies heat shock-induced nuclear accumulation of cofilin." J Biol Chem 264, 16143-16148.

Ojala, P. J., Paavilainen, V. & Lappalainen, P. (2001) Identification of yeast cofilin residues specific for actin monomer and PIP2 binding., Biochemistry. 40, 15562-15569.

Okada, K., T. Obinata, et al. (1999). "XAIP1: a Xenopus homoloque of yeast actin interacting protein 1 (AIP1), which induces disassembly of actin filaments cooperatively with ADF/cofilin family proteins." J.Cell Sci. 112, 1553-1565.

Okada, K., H. Takanoohmuro, et al. (1996). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes derived from peripheral-blood." Exp.Cell Res. 227, 116-122.

Ono, S. (1999). "Purification and biochemical characterization of actin from Caenorhabditis elegans: Its difference from rabbit muscle actin in the interaction with nematode ADF/cofilin." Cell mot.Cytoskeleton.

Ono, S., H. Abe, et al. (1993). "Colocalization of ADF and cofilin in intranuclear actin rods of cultured muscle cells." J. Mus. Res. and Cell Mot. 14, 195-204.

Ono, S., D. L. Baillie, et al. (1999). "UNC-60B, an ADF/cofilin family protein, is required for proper assembly of actin into myofibrils in Caenorhabditits elegans body wall muscle." J.Cell Biol. 145, 1-12.

Ono, S. and G. M. Benian (1998). "Two Caenorhabditis elegans Actin Depolymerizing Factor/Cofilin proteins, encoded by the unc-60 gene, differentially regulate actin filament dynamics." J.Biol.Chem. 273(6), 3778-3783.

Ono, S., N. Minami, et al. (1994). "Characterization of a novel cofilin isoform that is predominantly expressed in mammalian skeletal-muscle." J. Biol.Chem. 269, 15280-15286.

Ott, D. E., L. V. Coren, et al. (1996). "Cytoskeletal proteins inside human immunodeficiency virus type1 virions." J.Virol. 70(11), 7734-7743.

Pollard, T. D., Blanchoin, L. & Mullins, R. D. (2000) Molecular mechanisms controlling actin filament dynamics in nonmuscle cells., Annu.Rev.Biophys.Biomol.Sruct. 29, 545-576.

Pope, B. J., S. M. Gonsior, et al. (2000). "Uncoupling actin filament fragmentation by cofilin from increased subunit turnover." J.Mol.Biol. 298, 649-661.

Renoult, C., D. Ternent, et al. (1999). "The identification of a second cofilin binding site on actin suggests a novel, intercalated arrangement of F-actin binding." J.Biol.Chem. 274(41), 28893-28899.

Ressad, F., D. Didry, et al. (1999). "Control of actin filament length and turnover by actin depolymerizing factor (ADF/Cofilin) in the presence of capping proteins and ARP2/3 complex." J.Biol.Chem. 274(30),  20970-20976.

Ressad, F., D. Didry, et al. (1998). "Kinetic analysis of the interaction of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin with G- and F-actins." J.Biol.Chem. 273, 20894-20902.

Rosenblatt, J., Agnew, B.J., Abe, H., Bamburg, J.R. & Mitchison, T.J. (1997). "Xenopus actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin (XAC) is responsible for the actin turnover of actin filaments in Listeria monocytogenes tails." J.Cell Biol. 136, 1323-1332.

Rosenblatt, J., B. J. Agnew, et al. (1996). "Xenopus actin depolymerizing protein/cofilin (XAC) is responsible for the turnover of actin filaments in Listeria monocytogenes tails." Mol. Biol. of the Cell 7, 545a.

Rosenblatt, J. and T. J. Mitchison (1998). "Actin, cofilin and cognition." Nature 393, 739-740.

Saito, T., F. Lamy, et al. (1994). "Characterization and identification as cofilin and destrin of two thyrotropin-regulated and phorbol ester-regulated phosphoproteins in thyroid-cells." Exp.Cell Res. 212, 49-61.

Sakai, D., H.-S. Tong, et al. (1995). "Osteoclast molecular phenotyping by random cDNA sequencing." Bone 17(2), 111-119.

Sakisaka, T., T. itoh, et al. (1997). "Phosphatidylinosotil 4,5-bisphosphate phosphatase regulates the rearrangement of actin filaments." Mol.Cell.Biol. 17(7), 3841-3849.

Sameshima, M., Y. Chijiwa, et al. (1994). "Novel actin rods appeared in spores of Dictyostelium discoideum." Cell Struct.Funct. 19, 189-194.

Samstag, Y., E. M. Dreizler, et al. (1996). "Inhibition of constitutive serine phosphatase-activity in T-lymphoma- cells results in phosphorylation of pp19/cofilin and induces apoptosis." Journal Of Immunology 156, 4167-4173.

Samstag, Y., C. Eckerskorn, et al. (1994). "Costimulatory signals for human T-cell activation induce nuclear translocation of pp19/cofilin." PNAS.USA 91, 4494-4498.

Shinagawa, Y., H. Abe, et al. (1993). "Increased expression of cofilin in denervated chicken skeletal muscle." Zoological Sci. 10, 611-618.

Smertenko, A. P., C.-J. Jiang, et al. (1998). "Ser6 in the maize actin-depolymerizing factor, ZmADF3, is phosphorylated by a calcium-stimulated protein kinase and is essential for the control of functional activity." Plant J. 14(2), 187-193.

Smertenko, A.P., Allwood, E.G., Khan, S., Jiang, C-J., Maciver, S.K., Weeds, A.G. and Hussey, P.J. (2001). "Interaction of pollen-specific actin-depolymerizing factor with actin". Plant.J. 25(2), 

Sotiropoulos, A., D. Gineitis, et al. (1999). "Signal-regulated activation of serum response factor is mediated by changes in actin dynamics." Cell 98, 159-169.

Southwick, F. S. (2000). "Gelsolin and ADF/cofilin enhance the actin dynamics of motile cells." PNAS 97(13), 6936-6938.

Stanyon, C. A. and O. Bernard (1999). "LIN-kinase 1." Int.J.Biochem. & Cell Biol. 31, 389-394.

Sumi, T., K. Matsumoto, et al. (1999). "Cofilin phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics regulated by Rho-and Cdc42-activated LIM-kinase 2." J.Cell Biol. 147(7), 1519-1532.

Sun, H.-Q., K. Kwiatkowska, et al. (1995). "Actin monomer binding proteins." Current Opinion in Cell Biol. 7, 102-110.

Sutoh, K. & Mabuchi, I. (1989) End-label fingerprintings show that an N-terminal segment of depactin participates in interaction with actin, Biochemistry. 28, 102-106.

Sutoh, K. & Mabuchi, I. (1984) N-terminal and C-terminal segments of actin participate in binding depactin, an actin-depolymerizing protein from starfish oocytes, Biochemistry. 23, 6757-6761.

Suzuki, K., T. Yamaguchi, et al. (1995). "Okadaic acid induces both augmentation and inhibition of opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide production by differentiated hl-60 cells - possible involvement of dephosphorylation of a cytosolic 21k protein in respiratory burst." Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1266, 261-267.

Suzuki, K., T. Yamaguchi, et al. (1995). "Activation induces dephosphorylation of cofilin and its translocation to plasma membranes in neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells." J. Biol. Chem. 270(33), 19551-19556.

Svitkina, T. M. and G. G. Borisy (1999). "Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia." J.Cell Biol. 145, 1009-1026.

Takagi, T., Konishi, K. & Mabuchi, I. (1988) Amino Acid Sequence of Starfish Oocyte Depactin, J.Biol.Chem. 263, 3097-3102.

Takuma, T., T. Ichida, et al. (1995). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in parotid acinar-cells stimulated by isoproterenol." Journal Of Dental Research 74, 568-568.

Takuma, T., T. Ichida, et al. (1996). "Dephosphorylation of cofilin in parotid acinar-cells." J. Biochem. 120, 35-41.

Theriot, J. A. (1997). "Accelerating on a treadmill: ADF/cofilin promotes rapid actin filament turnover in the dynamic cytoskeleton." J.Cell Biol. 136, 1165-1168.

Tuominen, E. K. J., J. M. Holopainen, et al. (1999). "Fluorescent phosphoinositide derivatives reveal specific binding of gelsolin and other actin regulatort proteins to mixed lipid bilayers." Eur.J.Biochem. 263, 85-92.

van der Steege, G., T. G. Draaijers, et al. (1995). "A provisonal transcipt map of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) critical region." Eur. J.Hum.Genetics 3, 87-95.

Van Troys, M., D. Dewitte, et al. (1997). "Analogous F-actin binding by cofilin and gelsolin segment 2 substantiates their structural relationship." J.Biol.Chem. 272, 3275-32758.

Van Troys, M., Dewitte, D., Verschelde, J.-L., Goethals, M., Vanderckerhove, J. & Ampe, C. (2000) The competitive interaction of actin and PIP2 with actophorin is based on overlapping target sites: design of a gain-of-function mutant., Biochemistry. 39, 12181-12189

Wada, A., M. Fukuda, et al. (1998). "Nuclear export of actin; a novel mechanism regulating the subcellular localization of a major cytoskeletal protein." EMBO J 17, 1635-1641.

Wriggers, W., Z. X. Tang, et al. (1998). "Cofilin and gelsolin segment-1: Molecular dynamics simulation and biochemical analysis predict a similar binding mode." J.Mol.Biol. 282, 921-932.

Yang, N., O. Higuchi, et al. (1998). "Cofilin phosphorylation by LIM-kinase 1 and its role in Rac-mediated actin reorganization." Nature 393, 809-812.

Yonezawa, N., Y. Homma, et al. (1991). "A short sequence responsible for both phosphoinositide binding and actin binding activities of cofilin." J. Biol. Chem. 266: 17218-17221.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1991). "Inhibition of actin polymerization by a synthetic dodecapeptide patterned on the sequence around the actin-binding site of cofilin." J Biol Chem 266, 10485-10489.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1990). "Inhibition of the interactions of cofilin, destrin, and deoxyribonuclease-1 with actin by phosphoinositides." J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8382-8386.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1987). "Distribution among tissues and intracellular localization of cofilin, a 21kDa actin-binding protein." Cell Struct.Funct. 12, 443-452.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1988). "Studies on the interaction between actin and cofilin purified by a new method." Biochem. J. 251, 121-127.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1989). "An actin-interacting heptapeptide in the cofilin sequence." Eur. J. Biochem. 183, 235-238.

Yonezawa, N., E. Nishida, et al. (1985). "pH control of actin polymerization by cofilin." J. Biol. Chem. 260(27), 14410-14412.

Zebda, N., Bernard, O., Bailly, M., Welti, S., Lawrence, D.S. & Condeelis, J.S. (2000). "Phosphorylation of ADF/cofilin abolishes EGF-induced actin nucleation at the leading edge and subsequent lamellipod extension." J.Cell Biol. 151(5), 1119-1127.

Zechel, K. (1993). "The interaction of 6-propionyl-2-(NN-dimethyl) aminonaphthalene (PRODAN)-labelled actin with actin-binding proteins and drugs." Biochem.J 290, 411-417.

 
  EDInfo Biomedical Sciences Cytoskeletal Links Encyclopaedia of A.B.P.s The Amoebae Protozoology links Glossary of Amoeba terms   Maciver Lab Home