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Endocytosis

Endocytosis is the process by which small particle, molecules and liquids are taken into cells.  This for the most part accomplished by receptor-mediated endocytosis involving clathrin coated pits and vesicles. A huge number of proteins have been implicated in this multi-step process (Table 1), large amongst them being actin (Ayscough 2000; Lamaze et al, 1997; Schafer 2002), and microtubules (Maples et al, 1997).
Protein Function References
Abp1p   Kessels et al, 2001
Arp2/3    
Cortactin    
Dynamin A motor protein  whose function seems to be to close membranes by a GTP dependent pinch mechanism.  
Epsins Actin filament bundling proteins that bind clatherin Wendland et al, 1999
Hip1   Engqvist-Goldstein et al, 2001; Metzler et al, 2001
Profilin    
Pan1p   Duncan et al, 2001
Myosin     
Myosin VI A motor protein that unlike other myosins moves toward the pointed end of microfilaments.  This orientation is expected to be consistent with a requirement to move the vesicle away from the membrane after scission. Buss et al, 2001
Rho   Ellis & Mellor, 2000
     
     
     
Table 1 Proteins implicated in involvement in endocytosis
References

Duncan, M. C., Cope, M. J. T. V., Goode, B. L., Wendland, B. & Drubin, D. G. (2001) Yeast Eps15-like endocytic protein, Pan1p, activates the Arp2/3 complex., Nature Cell Biol. 3, 687-690.

Ellis, S. & Mellor, H. (2000) Regulation of endocytic traffic by Rho family GTPases., Trends Cell Biology. 10, 85-88.

Gaidarov, I., Santini, F., Warren, R. A. & Keen, J. H. (1999) Spatial control of coated-pit dynamics in living cells, Nature Cell Biol. 1, 1-7.

Dharmawardhane, S., Sanders, L. C., Martin, S. S., Daniels, R. H. & Bokoch, G. M. (1997) Localization of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) to pinocytic vesicles and cortical actin structures instimulated cells, J.Cell Biol. 138, 1265-1278.

Maples, C. J., Ruiz, W. G. & Apodaca, G. (1997) Both microtubules and actin filaments are required for efficient post endocytic traffic of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J.Biol.Chem. 272, 6741-6751.

Lamaze, C., Fujimoto, L. M., Yin, H. L. & Schmid, S. L. (1997) The actin cytoskeleton is required for receptor-mediated endocytosis in mammalian cells., J.Biol.Chem. 272, 20332-20335.

Lowry, M. B., Duchemin, A.-M., Robinson, J. M. & Anderson, C. L. (1998) Functional separation of pseudopod extension and particle internalization during Fcg receptor-mediated phagocytosis, J.Exp.Med. 187, 161-176.

Engqvist-Goldstein, A. E. Y., Warren, R. A., Kessels, M. M., Keen, J. H., Heuser, J. & Drubin, D. G. (2001) The actin-binding protein Hip1R associates with clathrin during early stages of endocytosis and promotes clathrin assembly in vitro., J.Cell Biol. 154, 1209-1223.

Li, G., D'Souza-Schorey, C., Barbieri, M. A., Cooper, J. A. & Stahl, P. D. (1997) Uncoupling of membrane ruffling and pinocytosis during Ras signal transduction, J.Biol.Chem. 272, 10337-10340.

Metzler, M., Legendre-Guillemin, V., Gan, L., Chopra, V., Kwok, A., McPherson, P. S. & Hayden, M. R. (2001) HIP1 functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis through binding to clathrin and adaptor protein 2., J.Biol.Chem. 276, 39271-39276.

Buss, F., Arden, S. D., Lindsay, M., Luzio, J. P. & Kendrick-Jones, J. (2001) Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis., EMBO J. 20, 3676-3684.

Grewal, T., Heeren, J., Mewawala, D., Schnitgerhans, T., Wendt, D., Salomon, G., Enrich, C., Beisiegel, U. & Jackle, S. (2000) Annexin VI stimulates endocytosis and is involved in the trafficking of low density lipoprotein to the prelysosomal compartment., J. Biol.Chem. 275, 33806-33813.

Wasiak, S., Quinn, C. C., Ritter, B., de Heuvel, E., Baranes, D., Plomann, M. & McPherson, P. S. (2001) The Ras/Rac guanine nucleoide exchange factor mammalian son-of sevenless interacts with PACSIN 1/syndapin I, a regulator of endocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton., J.Biol.Chem. 276, 26622-26628.

Kessels, M. M., Engqvist-Goldstein, A. E. Y., Drubin, D. G. & Qualmann, B. (2001) Mammalian Abp1, a signal-responsive F-actin-binding protein, links the actin cytoskeleton to endocytosis via the GTPase dynamin., J.Cell Biol. 153, 351-366.

Ayscough, K. R. (2000) Endocytosis and the development of cell polarity in yeast require a dynamic F-actin cytoskeleton., Curr.Biol. 10, 1587-1590.

Konzok, A., Weber, I., Simmeth, E., Hacker, U., Maniak, M. & Muller-Taubenberger, A. (1999) DAip1, a Dictyostelium homologue of the yeast actin-interacting protein 1, is involved in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and motility., J.Cell Biol. 146, 453-464.

Dumontier, M., Hocht, P., Mintert, U. & Faix, J. (2000) Rac1 GTPases control filopodia formation, cell motility, endocytosis, cytokinesis and development in Dictyostelium., J.Cell Sci. 113, 2253-2265.

Riezman, H., Woodman, P. G., van Meer, G. & Marsh, M. (1997) Molecular mechanisms of endocytosis., Cell. 91, 731-738.

Wendland, B., Steece, K. E. & Emr, S. D. (1999) Yeast epsins contain an essential N-terminal ENTH domain, bind clathrin and are required for endocytosis., EMBO J. 18, 4383-4393.

Titus, M. A. (2000) The role of unconventional myosins in Dictyostelium endocytosis., J.Eukaryot.Microbiol. 47, 191-196.

Yang, W. & Cerione, R. A. (1999) Endocytosis: Is dynamin a 'blue collar" or "white collar' worker?, Curr.Biol. 9, 511-514.

Mayer, B. J. (1999) Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand, Curr.Biol. 9, 70-73.

Robinson, M. S., Watts, C. & Zerial, M. (1996) Membrane dynamics in endocytosis, Cell. 84, 13-21.

Schafer, D. A. (2002) Coupling actin and membrane dynamics during endocytosis., Curr.Op.Cell Biol. 14, 76-81.

Moreau, V., Galan, J.-M., Devilliers, G., Haguenauer-Tsapsis, R. & Winsor, B. (1997) The yeast actin-related protein Arp2p is required for the internalization step of endocytosis, Mol.Biol.Cell. 8, 1361-1375.

Davis, W., Harrison, P. T., Hutchinson, M. J. & Allen, J. M. (1995) Two distinct regions of FcgRI initiate separate signalling pathways involved in endocytosis and phagocytosis, EMBO J. 14, 432-441.

Buczynski, G., Grove, B., Nomura, A., Kleve, M., Bush, J., Firtel, R. A. & Cardelli, J. (1997) Inactivation ot two Dictyostelium discoideum genes, DdPIK1 and DdPIK2, encoding proteins related to mammalian phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, results in defects in endocytosis, lysosome to postlysosome transport, and actin polymerization, J.Cell Biol. 136, 1271-1286.

Bretscher, M. S. (1984) Endocytosis: Relation to capping and cell locomotion, Science. 224, 681-686.

Bénédetti, H., Raths, S., Crausaz, F. & Riezman, H. (1994) The END3 gene encodes a protein that is required for the internalization step in endocytosis and for actin cytoskeletal organization in yeast, Mol.Biol.Cell. 5, 1023-1037.

Tang, H.-Y., Munn, A. & Cai, M. (1997) EH domain proteins Pan1p and END3p are components of a complex that plays a dual role in organization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mol.Cell Biol. 17, 4294-4304.

Kübler, E. & Riezman, H. (1993) Actin and finbrin are required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast, EMBO J. 12, 2855-2862.

 
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