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A family of actin binding proteins related to the "bullous pemphigoid antigen", (BPAG).   An unusual protein family in that members connect the three main cytoskeletal elements (microfilament, microtubules and intermediate filaments) by binding to all three! (Houseweart & Cleveland, 1999). Members of this family include BPAG1n1, BPAG1n2, BPAG1n3, ACF7 and plectin (a more distant relation).  These proteins are large (c300-500kD) characterised by coiled coil domains.

Figure 1.  ABP actin-binding site, M microtubule-binding site, IF intermediate filament binding site.

Some BPAG members connect the intermediate filament belt at desmosomes and hemidesmosomes (Figure 2)


Houseweart, M. K. & Cleveland, D. W. (1999) Cytoskletal linkers: New MAPs for old destinations., Current Biology. 9, R864-R866.

Fuchs, E. & Yang, Y. (1999) Crossroads on cytoskeletal highways, Cell. 98, 547-550.

Yang, Y., Dowling, J., Yu, Q.-C., Kouklis, P., Cleveland, D. W. & Fuchs, E. (1996) An essential cytoskeletal linker protein connecting actin microfilaments to intermediate filaments, Cell. 86, 655-665.

Yang, Y., Bauer, C., Strasser, G., Wollman, R., Julien, J.-P. & Fuchs, E. (1999) Integrators of the cytoskeleton that stabilize microtubules, Cell. 98, 229-238.

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