kinase-1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase-2 (LIMK2) are actin-binding kinases that
phosphorylate members of the ADF/cofilin family of actin binding and filament
severing proteins. ADF/cofilin are the only substrates yet identified for
the LIM kinases. Upstream, LIMK1 is regulated by Pak1 (Edwards
et al, 1999),
and LIMK2 by the Rho-dependent kinase ROCK (Sumi
et al, 2001).
Lim Kinases are activated by PAK (p21-activated kinase).
H., Wakatsuki, S., Ishii, A., Moriyama, K., Sasaki, Y., Ohashi, K.,
Sekine-Aizawa, Y., Sehara-Fujisawa, A., Mizuno, K., Goshima, Y. & Yahara, I.
(2001) Phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM kinase is necessary for semaphorin
3A-induced growth cone collapse., Nature Neuroscience. 4, 367-373.
T., Tanabe, K., Eto, T., Narumiya, S. & Mizuno, K. (2001) LIM-kinase 2
induces formation of stress fibres, focal adhesions and membrane blebs,
dependent on its activation by Rho-associated kinase-catalysed phopshorylation
at threonine-505., Biochem. J. 354, 149-159.
D.C., Sanders, L.C., Bokoch, G.M. & Gill, G.N. (1999) Nature Cell Biol.
T., Matsumoto, K. & Nakamura, T. (2001). "Specific activation of LIM
kinase 2 via phosphorylation of threonine 505 by ROCK, a Rho-dependent protein
kinase." J.Biol.Chem. 276(1), 670-676.