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An actin-binding/depolymerizing macrolide toxin from a marine sponge of the genus Mycale (Pacific) (Fusetani et al, 1989). The toxin has a molecular weight of 1027 and binds G-actin 1:1.  Its action appears to be to sever and depolymerise F-actin and to sequester G-actin (Saito et al, 1994) making it a useful pharmacological tool to investigate the actin cytoskeleton (Kuwabara et al, 2001).  The action of mycalolide differs from the cytochalasins (Hori et al, 1993).

Fusetani, N., Yasumuro, K., Matsunaga, S. & Hashimoto, K. (1989) Mycalolides A-C, hybrid macroglides of ulapualides and halichondramide, from a sponge of the genus Mycale. Tetrahedron letters. 30, 2809-2812.

Hori, M., Saito, S., Shin, Y.Z., Ozaki, H., Fusetani, N. Karaki, H. (1993) Mycalolide-B, a novel and specific inhibitor of actomyosin ATPase isolated from marine sponge. FEBS letters. 322, 151-154.

Kuwabara, H., Kokai, Y., Kojima, T., Takakuwa, R., Mori, M. & Sawada, N. (2001) Occludin regulates actin cytoskeleton in endothelial cells, Cell Structure & Function. 26, 109-116.

Saito, S.-y., Watabe, S., Ozaki, H., Fusetani, N. & Karaki, H. (1994) Mycalolide B, a novel actin depolymerizing agent. J.Biol.Chem. 269, 29710-29714.

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