huge actin binding protein abundant in skeletal muscle, and isoforms (smitin)
exists in smooth muscles (Kim
& Keller III, 2002).
Titins are also minor components of some non-muscle cells (Eilersten
& Keller III, 1992)
and surprisingly it has been found to be a
structural component of the nucleus (Machado
et al, 1998)
. Titin connects a-actinin
at the Z-disc in an anti-parallel fashion that seems to be important in setting
up the sacromere during muscle development.
C., Raynaud, F., Lebart, M.-C., Roustan, C. and Benyamin, Y. (1998).
"Binding of a native titin fragment to actin is regulated by PIP2."
FEBS Letters 429, 95-98.
R. A., C. Joseph, et al. (2000). "Binding of a-actinin
to titin: Implications for Z-disk assembly." Biochemistry 39,
K. J. and T. C. S. Keller III (1992). “Identification and characterization of
the huge protein components of the brush border cytoskeleton: Evidence for a
cellular isoform of titin.” J.Cell
Biol. 119(3), 549-557.
C. C., Granzier, H., Sorimachi, H. and Labeit, S.. (1999). "Muscle assembly: a titanic
achievement?" Curr.Op.Cell Biol. 11, 18-25.
Kim, K. & Keller
III, T. C. S. (2002) Smitin, a novel smooth muscle titin-like protein, interacts
with myosin filaments in vivo and in vitro., JCB. 156, 101-111.
C., C. E. Sunkel, et al. (1998). "Human autoantibodies reveal titin as a
chromosomal protein." J.Cell Biol. 141, 321-333.
T. M., K. Maruyama, et al. (1999). "Relation of nebulin and connectin (titin)
to dynamics of actin in nascent myofibrils of cultured skeletal muscle
cells." Exp.Cell Res. 252, 33-40.
V., Kostin, S., Suzuki, K., Labeit, S. & Schaper, J. (2000). "Antisense
oligonucleotide experiments elucidate the essential role of titin in
sarcomerogenesis in adult rat cardiomyocetes in long-term culture." J.Cell
Sci. 113, 3851-3859.
M., M. Takahashi, et al. (1999). "Structural analysis of the titin gene in
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Identifiaction of a novel disease gene." BBRC
H., A. Freiburg, et al. (1997). "Tissue-specific expression and a-actinin
binding properties of the Z-disc titin: Implications for the nature of
vertebrate Z-discs." J.Mol.Biol. 270, 688-695.
J. and L. Tskhovrebova (1999). "Titin: a molecular control freak." Trends
Cell Biol. 9, 377-380.
L., J. Trinick, et al. (1997). "Elasticity and unfolding of single
molecules of the giant muscle protein titin." Nature 387,
der Ven, P. F., J. W. Bartsch, et al. (2000). "A functional knock-out of
titin results in defective myofibril assembly." J.Cell Sci. 113,
Straaten, M., D. Goulding, et al. (1999). "Association of kettin with actin
in the Z-disc of insect flight muscle." J.Mol.Biol. 285,
P., C. Ferguson, et al. (1998). "Molecular structure of the sarcomeric
Z-disk: two types of titin interactions lead to an asymetric sorting of a-actinin."
EMBO J. 17(6), 1614-1624.