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Unusually for an actin filament capping protein, tropomodulin is a pointed end capping protein found predominantly in muscle cells. Tropomodulin binds actin, tropomyosin and nebulin (McElhinny et al, 2001).


Almenar-Queralt, A., A. Lee, et al. (1999). "Identifiaction of a novel tropomodulin isoform, skeletal tropomodulin, that caps actin filament pointed ends in fast skeletal muscle." J.Biol.Chem. 274(40), 28466-28475.

Kostyukova, A., Maeda, K., Yamauchi, E., Kreiger, I. & Maeda, Y. (2000) Domain structure of tropomodulin. Distinct properties of the N-terminal and C-terminal halves., Eur.J.Biochem. 267, 6470-6475.

Krieger, I., Kostyukova, A., Yamashita, A., Nitanai, Y. & Maeda, Y. (2002) Crystal structure of the C-terminal half of tropomodulin and structural basis of actin filament pointed-end capping. Biophys.J. 83, 2716-2725.

McElhinny, A.S., Kolmerer, B., Fowler, V.M., Labeit, S. & Gregorio, C.C. (2001)." The N-terminal end of nebulin interacts with tropomodulin at the pointed ends of the thin filaments." J.Biol.Chem.276(1), 583-592.

Weber, A., C. R. Pennise, et al. (1994). "Tropomodulin caps the pointed ends of actin filaments." J. Cell Biol. 127, 1627-1635.

Weber, A., C. R. Pennise, et al. (1999). "Tropomodulin increases the critical concentration of barbed end-capped actin filaments by converting ADP.Pi-actin to ADP-actin at all pointed filament ends." J.Biol.Chem. 274(49), 34637-34645.

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