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Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic amoeba  second only to the malaria  parasite Plasmodium in importance as a protistan killer of people. It kills an estimated 100,000 people each year (W.H.O. bulletin 75, 1997).  Entamoeba gingivalis infects the mouths of humans, another  relative Entamoeba dispar colonises the gut of many more people than E. histolytica without apparent effect.

Entamoeba links:-


Phylogenetic relations and evolution of Entamoeba
The position of Entamoeba relative to other organisms has been controversial as has the reconstruction of its evolution (Clark, 2001).  Entamoeba  is somewhat related to  the Vahlkampfiid amoeba (Naegleria, Heteramoeba, etc) according to SSUrDNA analysis (Sogin et al 1996).  This is compatible with the fact that like this group they have circular ribosomal RNA plasmids (Bhattacharya et al, 1998) and a similar limax locomotory morphology and cyst structure.  However, Entamoeba does not produce a flagellate stage and many phylogenetic analysis place the genus distance to the Vahlkampfiid group.  

It has been widely assumed that Entamoeba is a primitive, early branching eukaryote that never acquired mitochondria (Bakker-Grunwald & Worstmann, 1991), however it appears now that Entamoeba does in fact possess mitochondria-like organelles.  These mitochondria-organelles are called "crypton" (Mai et al, 1999, Gosh et al, 2000) and "mitosome" (Tovar et al, 1999), they are double membraned and contain DNA (Gosh et al, 2000) .  Recent studies conclude that Endamoeba and Entamoeba are related to Pelomyxa and should be grouped in the Archamoeba (Milyutina et al, 2001). A more recent study places Entamoeba together with Dictyostelium and Mastigamoeba in sub phylum Conosa (Bapteste, 2002).

Cytoskeletal Proteins from Entamoeba.

A number of actin binding proteins  have been isolated from Entamoeba and these presumably perform a function similar to homologs in other cell types.

Protein Function Reference GenBank
EhABPH Ebert et al, 2000 AF118397
Myosin 1b Voigt et al, 1999
Profilin Binder et al, 1995



Bapteste, E., Brinkmann, H., Lee, J. A., Moore, D. V., Sensen, C. W., Gordon, P., Durufle, L., Gaasterland, T., Lopez, P., Muller, M. & Philippe, H. (2002) The analysis of 100 genes supports the grouping of three highly devergent amoebae: Dictyostelium, Entamoeba, and Mastigamoeba., PNAS. 99, 1414-1419.

Bhattacharya, S., Som, I. & Bhattacharya, A. (1998) The ribosomal DNA plasmids of Entamoeba., Parasitol.Today. 14, 181-185.

Bhattacharya, A., Anand, M. T., Paul, J., Yadav, N. & Bhattacharya, S. (1998) Molecular changes in Entamoeba histolytica in response to bacteria, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 28S-33S.

Binder, M., Ortner, S., Erben, H., Scheiner, O., Wiedermann, G., Valenta, R. & Duchene, M. (1995) The basic isoform of profilin in pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica cDNA cloning, heterologous expression, and actin-binding properties, Eur. J. Biochem. 233, 976-981.

Clark, C. G. (200) The evolution of Entamoeba, a cautionary tale, Rev.Microbiol. 151, 599-603.

Dodson, J. M., Clark, C. G., Lockhart, L. A., Leo, B. M., Schroeder, J. W. & Mann, B. J. (1997) Comparison of adherence, cytotoxicity, and Gal/GalNAc lectin gene structure in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar, Parasitology International. 46, 225-235.

Eichinger, D. (1997) Encystation of Entamoeba parasites, BioEssays. 19, 633-639.

Gadasi, H. (1982) Isolated Entamoeba-histolytica actin does not inhibit DNase-I activity, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 104, 158-164.

Göttke, M. U., Keller, K., Belley, A., Garcia, R.-M., Hollingsworth, M. A., Mack, D. R. & Chadee, K. (1998) Functional heterogeneity of colonic adenocarcinoma mucins for inhibition of Entamoeba histolytica adherence to target cells, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 17S-23S.

Gómez-Conde, E., Hernández-Jáuregui, P., González-Camacho, M., Orozco, E. & López, C. A. (1998) Chromatin organization during the nuclear division stages of live Entamoeba histolytica trophozites., Exp. Parasitol. 89, 122-124.

Mai, Z. & Samuelson, J. (1998) A new gene family (ariel) encodes asparagine-rich Entamoeba histolytica antigens, which resemble the amebic vaccine candidate serine-rich E. histolytica protein, Infection and Immunity. 66, 353-355.

Mann, B. J. & Ashley Lockhart, L. (1998) Molecular analysis of the Gal/GalNac adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 13S-16S.

Milyutina, I. A., Aleshin, V. V., Mikrjukov, K. A., Kedrova, O. S. & Petrov, N. B. (2001) The unusually long small subunit ribosomal RNA gene found in amitochondriate amoeboflagellate Pelomyxa palustris: its rRNA predicted secondary structure and phylogenetic implication., Gene. 272, 131-139.

Spice, W. M. & Ackers, J. P. (1998) The effects of Entamoeba histolytica lysates on human colonic mucins, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 24S-27S.

Tanaka, T., Tanaka, M. & Mitsui, Y. (1997) Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Biochem.Biophys.Res.Comm. 236, 611-615.

Tran, V. Q., Herdman, D. S., Torian, B. E. & Reed, S. L. (1998) The neutral cycteine proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica degrades IgG and prevents its binding, J.Infect.Diseases. 177, 508-511.

Kobayashi, S., Imal, E., Tachibana, H., Fujiwara, T. & Takeuchi, T. (1998) Entamoeba dispar: cultivation with sterile Crithidia fasciculata, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 3S-8S.

Jacobs, T. & Leippe, M. (1995) Purification and molecular cloning of a major antibacterial protein of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with lysozyme-like properties, Eur.J.Biochem. 231, 831-838.

Villagómez-Castro, J. C., Calvo-Méndez, C. & López-Romero, E. (1992) Chitinase activity in encysting Entamoeba invadens and its inhibition by allosamidin, Mol.Biochem.Parasitol. 52, 53-62.

Pérez, E., de Lourdes Muñoz, M. & Ortega, A. (1998) Entamoeba histolytica: collagen-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity, FEMS letters. 159, 187-192.

Byers, T. J. (1986) Molecular Biology of DNA in Acamthamoeba, Amoeba, Entamoeba, and Naegleria., Int.Rev.Cytol. 99, 311-341.

Ghosh, S. K., Field, J., Frisardi, M., Rosenthal, B., Mai, Z., Rogers, R. & Samuelson, J. (1999) Chitinase Secretion by Encysting Entamoeba invadens and Transfected Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites: Localization of Secretory Vesicles, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Golgi Apparatus, Infect. Immun. 67, 3073-3081.

Padilla-Vaca, F., Ankri, S., Bracha, R., Koole, L. A. & Mirelman, D. (1999) Down regulation of Entamoeba histolytica virulence by monxenic cultivation with Eschericia coli 055 is related to a decrease in expression of the light (35-Kilodalton) subunit of the Gal/GalNac lectin., Infect.Immun. 67, 2096-2102.

Dhar, S. K., Vines, R. R., Bhattacharya, S. & Petri jr, W. A. (1998) Ribosomal DNA fragments enhance the stability of transfected DNA in Entamoeba histolytica, J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 656-660.

Espinosa-Cantellano, M., González-Robles, A., Chávez, B., Castañón, G., Argüello, C., Lázaro-Haller, A. & Martínez-Palomo, A. (1998) Entamoeba dispar: ultrstructure, surface properties and cytopathic effect., J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 265-272.

Voigt, H., Olivo, J.-C., Sansonetti, P. & Guillén, N. (1999) Myosin 1B from Entamoeba histolytica is involved in phagocytosis of human erythrocytes., J.Cell Sci. 112, 1191-1201.

Voigt, H. & Guillén, N. (1999) New insights into the role of the cytoskeleton in phagocytosis of Entamoeba histolytica., Cellular Microbiol. 1, 195-203.

Löhden, U. & Bakker-Grunwald, T. (1989) Magnetic separation of pinocytic vesicles of defined age from Entamoeba histolytica, Analytical Biochemistry. 182, 77-83.

Willhoeft, U. & Tannich, E. (1999) The electrophoretic karyotype of Entamoeba histolytica., Mol.Biol.Parasitol. 99, 41-53.

Paveto, C., Torres, H. N., Flawia, M. M., García-Espitia, M., Ortego, A. & Orozco, E. (1999) Entamoeba histolytica: Signaling through G proteins., Exp.Parasitol. 91, 170-175.

Villagómez-Castro, J. C. & López-Romero, E. (1996) Identification and partial characterization of three chitinase forms in Entamoeba invadens with emphasis on their inhibition by allosamidin., Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 70, 41-48.

Orozco, E., Solís, F. J., Domínguez, J., Chávez, B. & Hernández, F. (1988) Entamoeba histolytica: cell cycle and nuclear division., Exp.Parasitol. 67, 85-95.

Wassmann, C., Hellberg, A., Tannich, E. & Bruchhaus, I. (1999) Metronidazole resistance in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is associated with increased expression of iron-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin and decreased expression of ferredoxin 1 and flavin reductase., J.Biol.Chem. 274, 26051-26056.

Ribeiro, S., Maria de Araujo Soares, R., Alviano, C. S., Da Silva, E. F., De Souza, W. & Angluster, J. (1997) Cell-surface carbohydrates of Entamoeba invadens., Parasitol.Res. 83, 801-805.

Makioka, A., Kumagai, M., Ohtomo, H., Kobayashi, S. & Takeuchi, T. (1999) DNA polymerase activity in encysting Entamoeba invadens., Parasitol.Res. 85, 604-606.

Talamás-Rohana, P., Hernández-Ramirez, V. I., Perez-García, J. N. & Ventura-Juárez, J. (1998) Entamoeba histolytica contains a b1 integrin-like molecules similar to fibronectin recpetors from eukaryotic cells., J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 356-360.

López-Vancell, R., Montfort, I. & Pérez-Tamayo, R. (2000) Galactose-specific adhesin and cytotoxicity of Entamoeba histolytica., Parasitol.Res. 86, 226-231.

Gonzalez, J., Bai, G., Frevert, U., Corey, E. J. & Eichinger, D. (1999) Proteasome-dependent cyst formation and stage-specific ubiquitin mRNA accumulation in Entamoeba invadens., Eur.J.Biochem. 264, 897-904.

Bhattacharya, A., Satish, S., Bagchi, A. & Bhattacharya, S. (2000) The genomic Entamoeba histolytica., Int.J.Parasit. 30, 401-410.

Ghosh, S., Field, J., Rogers, R., Hickman, M. & Samuelson, J. (2000) The Entamoeba histolytica mitochondrion-derived organelle (crypton) contains double-stranded DNA and appears to be bound by a double membrane. Infect.Immun. 68, 4319-4322.

Clarke, C. G. & Rodger, A. J. (1995) Direct evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria in Entamoeba histolytica. Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci. USA. 92, 6518-6521.

de J.O.Batista, E., de Menezes Feitosa, L. F. & de Souza, W. (2000) The endocytic pathway in Entamoeba histolyticaParasitol.Res. 86, 881-890.

Field, J., Van Dellen, K., Ghosh, S. K. & Samuelson, J. (2000) Responses of Entamoeba invadens to heat shock and encystation are related., J.Eukaryot.Microbiol. 47, 511-514.

Ebert, F., Guillen, N., Leippe, M. & Tannich, E. (2000) Molecular cloning and cellular localization of an unusual bipartite Entamoeba histolytica polypeptide with similarity to actin binding proteins.  Mol.Biochem.Parasitol. 111, 459-464.

Guillén, N. (1996) Role of signalling and cytoskeletal rearrangement in the pathogenesis of Entamoeba histolytica. Trends Microbiol. 4, 191-197.

Tannich, E. & Horstmann, R. D. (1992) Codon usage in pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. J.Mol.Biol. 34, 272-273.

Robinson, S. P., Remedios, D. & Davidson, R. N. (1998) Do amoebic liver abscesses start as large lesions? Case report of evolving amoebic liver abscess, J.Infection. 35, 338-340.

Moody, S., Becker, S., Nuchamowitz, Y. & Mirelman, D. (1998) Identification of significant variation in the composition of lipophosphoglycan-like molecules of E. histolytica and E. dispar. J.Euk.Microbiol. 45, 9S-12S.

Martínez-Palomo, A. & Espinosa-Cantellano, M. (1998) Amoebiasis: New understanding and new goals. Parasitol.Today. 14, 1-3.

Frisardi, M., Ghosh, S. K., Field, J., Van Dellen, K., Rogers, R., Robbins, P. & Samuelson, J. (2000) The most abundant glycoprotein of amoebic cyst walls (Jacob) is a lectin with five Cys-rich, chitin-binding domains  Infect.Immun. 68, 4217-4224.

Clark, C.G. & Roger, A.J. (1995)."Direct evidence for secondary loss of mitochondria in Entamoeba histolytica." PNAS 92: 6518-6521.

Clark, C. G. & Diamond, L. S. (1997). "Intraspecific variation and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Entamoeba as revealed by riboprinting." J. Euk. Microbiol. 44:142-154.

Clark, C.G. (1997) "Riboprinting: a general tool for the study of genetic diversity in microorganisms." J. Euk. Microbiol. 44: 277--283. 

Ebert, F., Guillen, N., Leippe, M. & Tannich, E. (2000) Molecular cloning and cellular localization of an unusual bipartite Entamoeba histolytica polypeptide with similarity to actin binding proteins. Mol.Biochem.Parasitol. 111, 459-464.

Silberman, J.D., Clark, C.G., Diamond, L.S., Sogin, M.L. (1999). "Phylogeny of the genera Entamoeba and Endolimax as deduced from small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis." Mol. Biol. Evol. 16: 1740-1751

Sogin, M. L., Silberman, J.D, Hinkle, G. & Morrison, H.G. (1996). "Problems with molecular diversity in the eukarya.".Society of General Microbiology Symposium: Evolution of microbial Life ed.Roberts, D.M., Sharp, P., Alderson, G. & Collins, M.A. Cambridge University Press. pp167-184.

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