to Flabellula, but having shallower invaginations in the lamella,
which is generally narrower. Genus has a tendency to be
multinucleate. Floating forms typically have long radial
pseudopods. Generally do not produce cysts, but one cyst
producing, freshwater species P. kudoi has been described. Trailing
filopods common. Surprisingly perhaps, Paraflabellula hoguae (as Flabellula
hoguae) branches close to Hartmannella vermiformis in a
SSUrDNA analysis (Sogin
et al, 1996).
This apparent relationship is surprising since the two genera look
nothing like each other, more sensibly, however is a kinship between Paraflabellula
and Acanthamoeba since they look vaguely similar (in some SSUrDNA
trees Acanthamoeba braches with Hartmannella and Paramoeba).
Presumably then Acanthamoeba, Paraflabellula, Flabellula,
Hartmannella and Paramoeba form a major amoebic clade.
More recent SSUrDNA trees
(Amaral Zettler et al, 2000)
that two Paraflabellula, P. hoguae and P.reniformis
are actually split by a Rhizamoeba sp! Throwing into some
doubt the difference between Paraflabellula and Rhizamoeba.
L.A., Nerad, T.A., O'Kelly, C.J., Peglar, M.T., Gillevet, P.M., Silberman,
J.D. & Sogin, M.L. (2000). "A molecular reassessment of the
Leptomyxid amoebae." Protist 151, 275-282.
Page, F.C. (1968). "Genetic criteria for Flabellula,
Rugipes and Hyalodiscus, with descriptions of species. J.Protozool.
(1983). "Marine Gymnamoebae." Inst.Terr.Ecol. NERC Cambridge,
& Williamsen, N.B.S. (1983). " A light and electron-microscopical
study of Paraflabellula reniformis (Schmoller, 1964), type
species of a genus of amoeba (Amoebidae, Flabellulidae) with
subpseudopodia." Protistologica 19, 567-575.
(1975). "Marine amoebae from surface waters of Chincoteaque bay,
Virginia : Two new genera and nine species within the families
Mayorellidae, Flabellulidae, and Stereomyxidae." Trans.Amer.Microscop.Soc.
& Hanumaiah, V. (1979). "Studies on pathogenic and
non-pathogenic free-living amoebae and the bearing of nuclear division
of nuclear division and locomotive form and behaviour on the
classification of the order Amoebida." Monograph No 1, Association
of Microbiologists of India, Ind.J.Microbiol. 1-80.
(1999). "An illustrated survey of gymnamoebae isolated from
anaerobic sediments of the Niva bay (The Sound)." Ophelia 50(2),
M. L., Silberman, J.D, Hinkle, G. & Morrison, H.G. (1996).
"Problems with molecular diversity in the eukarya.".Society of
General Microbiology Symposium: Evolution of microbial Life ed.Roberts,
D.M., Sharp, P., Alderson, G. & Collins, M.A. Cambridge University